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Wackernagel, Mathis and Bert Beyers, 2019. Ecological Footprint: Managing the Biocapacity Budget, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island. (Italian translation 2020)

Wackernagel, Mathis and Bert Beyers, 2010. Ecological Footprint: Die Welt neu vermessen, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg. Updated 2016 edition: Footprint: Die Welt neu vermessen, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg.

Chambers, Nicky, Craig Simmons and M. Wackernagel, 2000. Sharing Nature’s Interest: Ecological Footprints as an Indicator for Sustainability, EarthScan, London. (Translated into Italian: Manuale de la Impronta Ecologica, Edizioni Ambiente, Milan, 2002).


Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 2000. The Winners and Losers in Global Competition: Why Eco-Efficiency Reinforces Competitiveness: A Study of 44 Nations, Verlag: Rüegger, Chur/Zürich. ISBN 3 7253 0658 3. Adapted and improved version of the German edition: Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 1999. Die Gewinner und die Verlierer im globalen Wettbewerb: Warum Öko-Effizienz die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit stärkt: 44 Nationen im Test, Verlag: Rüegger, Chur/Zürich 1999 (ISBN 3-7253-0653-2).


Wackernagel, M. and William E. Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island. 1996.; non-english editions (L’impronta ecologica, Milan: Edizioni Ambiente, Milan and WWF Italia, Roma, 1996, 3rd revised edition 2004; Unser ökologischer Fußabdruck, adapted and improved German version prepared by Mathis Wackernagel, Birkhäuser, Basel, April 1997; Notre empreinte écologique, Les Éditions Écosocieté, Montréal, ISBN 2-921561-43-3 1999). Also published in Spanish (LOM Ediciones, Santiago de Chile, 2001), Mandarin, Japanese, Latvian and Hungarian.

Mathis has also produced
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Academic Articles and Chapters

Wackernagel, Mathis, 2024, “Ecological Footprint ” in Christine Overdevest, editor, 2024, Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Sociology, Elgar, forthcoming.


Raven, Peter, Zhiyun Ouyang, Paul Smith and Mathis Wackernagel, 2023. “The Shenzhen Congress and Plant Conservation: What Have We Accomplished in the Six Years Since?” J. Syst. Evol. 2 November 2023,


Alessandro Galli, Marta Antonelli, Leopold Wambersie, Anna Bach-Faig, Fabio Bartolini, Dario Caro, Katsunori Iha, David Lin, Maria Serena Mancini, Roberta Sonnino, Davy Vanham, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2023. “EU-27 Ecological Footprint was primarily driven by food consumption and exceeded regional biocapacity from 2004 to 2014” Nature Food.


Rees, William E., and Mathis Wackernagel, 2023. “Ecological Footprint Accounting: Thirty Years and Still Gathering Steam”, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 65:5, 5-18,


Robinson, Abigail, Viola Csordas, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2022. “Defining limits: Ecological overshoot as a driver of conflict” in Brown, O. and Nicolucci-Altman, G. A White Paper on the Future of Environmental Peacebuilding, Geneva Peacebuilding Platform, International Union for Conservation of Nature, PeaceNexus Foundation, Environmental Law Institute, Environmental Peacebuilding Association


Wackernagel, Mathis, 2022, “Is the Global Economy Running a Pyramid Scheme?”, Pages 191-204 in Peter A. Wilderer, Martin Grambow, Michael Molls, Konrad Oexle (editors) 2022, Strategies for Sustainability of the Earth System, ISBN: 978-3-030-74457-1


Horsburgh, Nicola, Andrew Tyler, Scot Mathieson, Mathis Wackernagel, David, Lin, 2022, Biocapacity and cost-effectiveness benefits of increased peatland restoration in Scotland, Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 306, 15 March 2022, 114486,


Wackernagel, Mathis, Laurel Hanscom, Priyangi Jayasinghe, David Lin, Adeline Murthy, Evan Neill, Peter Raven, 2021. “The Importance of Resource Security for Poverty Eradication.” Nature Sustainability


Fatemi M, Rezaei-Moghaddam K, Karami E, Hayati D, Wackernagel M (2021) An integrated approach of Ecological Footprint (EF) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in human ecology: A base for planning toward sustainability. PLoS ONE 16(4): e0250167.


McBain, Bonnie, Manfred Lenzen, Glenn Albrecht, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2021, Chapter 5: Future Transitions to a Renewable Stationary Energy Sector: Implications of the Future Ecological Footprint and Land Use, in Arnab Banerjee, Ram Swaroop Meena, Manoj­Kumar Jhariya, Dhiraj Kumar Yadav (Editors), Agroecological Footprints Management, Springer, ISBN 978-981-15-9495-3, ISBN 978-981-15-9496-0 (eBook), Pages 155-178


Bradshaw, Corey J. A., Paul R. Ehrlich, Andrew Beattie, Gerardo Ceballos, Eileen Crist, Joan Diamond, Rodolfo Dirzo, Anne H. Ehrlich, John Harte, Mary Ellen Harte, Graham Pyke, Peter H. Raven, William J. Ripple, Frédérik Saltré, Christine Turnbull, Mathis Wackernagel, Daniel T. Blumstein, 2021, “Underestimating the challenges of avoiding a ghastly future”, Frontiers in Conservation Science / Front. Conserv. Sci. Vol 1, Article 615419  doi: 10.3389/fcosc.2020.615419. Response to Commentary:


Wackernagel, Mathis, 2020, If Greta read GAIA. GAIA 29/2 (2020): 73


Raven, Peter and Mathis Wackernagel, 2020, Maintaining Biodiversity will define our long-term success. Plant Diversity.


Galli, A., Iha, K., Pires, S. M., Mancini, M. S., Alves, A., Zokai, G., Lin, D., Murthy, A., Wackernagel, M., 2020. Assessing the Ecological Footprint and biocapacity of Portuguese cities: Critical results for environmental awareness and local management. Cities, 96,


Wackernagel, Mathis; Lin, David; Evans, Mikel; Hanscom, Laurel; Raven, Peter. 2019. "Defying the Footprint Oracle: Implications of Country Resource Trends." Sustainability 11, no. 7: 2164.


Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, Maria S.; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, Fatime-Zahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis. 2018. "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018." Resources 7, no. 3: 58.


Contribution to Ernst von Weizsäcker, Anders Wijkman et al. 2018, “Come On!” Report to the Club of Rome.


Wackernagel, M., 2019, “Terra Incognita: In Search of the Disconnect”, in Partha Dasgupta, Peter Raven, Anna McIvor (ed) (2019) Biological Extinction: New Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, UK. Based on Workshop on Biological Extinction, February 28 - March 1, 2017, Jointly Sponsored by The Pontifical Academy of Sciences and The Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences


Wackernagel, Mathis, David Lin, Laurel Hanscom, Alessandro Galli, Katsunori Iha (2019). Ecological Footprint, Fath, B.D. et al (ed) Encyclopaedia of Ecology (Second Edition), Elsevier. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Volume 4, 2019, Pages 270-282,


M. Fatemi, K. Rezaei-Moghaddam, M. Wackernagel, C. Shennan 2018, “Sustainability of environmental management in Iran: An ecological footprint analysis” Iran Agricultural Research (2018) 37(2) 53-68


Wackernagel, M., A. Galli, L. Hanscom, D. Lin, L. Mailhes, T. Drummond (2018), CHAPTER 16: Ecological Footprint Accounts: Principles” p244-264, in Simon Bell and Stephen Morse (Editors) 2018. Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indictors, Routledge International Handbooks. Routledge,


Wackernagel, M., A. Galli, L. Hanscom, D. Lin, L. Mailhes, T. Drummond (2018), CHAPTER 33: Ecological Footprint Accounts: Criticisms and Applications” p521-539 in Simon Bell and Stephen Morse (Editors) 2018. Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indictors, Routledge International Handbooks. Routledge,


Wackernagel, Mathis, Laurel Hanscom and David Lin (2017) Making the Sustainable Development Goals Consistent with Sustainability. Front. Energy Res. 5:18. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2017.00018


Maria Serena Mancini, Alessandro Galli, Valentina Niccolucci, David Lin, Laurel Hanscom, Mathis Wackernagel, Simone Bastianoni, Nadia Marchettini (2017), Stocks and flows of natural capital: Implications for Ecological Footprint, Ecological Indicators, Volume 77, June 2017, Pages 123-128,


McBain, Bonnie, Manfred Lenzen, Mathis Wackernagel, Glenn Albrecht (2017) How long can global ecological overshoot last? Global and Planetary Change, Volume 155, August 2017, Pages 13-19,


McBain, Bonnie, Manfred Lenzen, Glenn Albrecht & Mathis Wackernagel (2017) Reducing the ecological footprint of urban cars, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation


Alessandro Galli, Mario Giampietro, Steve Goldfinger, Elias Lazarus, David Lin, Andrea Saltelli, Mathis Wackernagel, Felix Müller (2016), Questioning the Ecological Footprint, Ecological Indicators, 69 224–232


A Galli, M Wackernagel, K Iha, E Lazarus (2014), Ecological footprint: Implications for biodiversity, Biological Conservation, Volume 173, May 2014, Pages 121-132,


Mancini, M.S., Galli, A., Niccolucci, V., Lin, D., Bastianoni, S., Wackernagel, M., Marchettini, N., (2016). Ecological Footprint: Refining the carbon Footprint calculation. Ecological Indicators, 61, 390-403


Mathis Wackernagel, 2015. Chapter 14. What Are the Economic Implications of Overshoot, if Any? Per Espen Stoknes (Editor), Kjell A. Eliassen (Editor) Science Based Activism: Festschrift to Jorgen Randers, 318 pages, Publisher: Fagbokforlaget (May 12, 2015)


Lin, David, Mathis Wackernagel, Alessandro Galli, Ronna Kelly, (2015) “Ecological Footprint: Informative and evolving – A response to van den Bergh and Grazi (2014) “ Ecological Indicators,  Volume 58, November 2015, Pages 464-468,


Sumaila UR, Hotte N, Galli A, Lam VWY, Cisneros-Montemayor AM, Wackernagel M, 2015. Eco2: a simple index of economic-ecological deficits. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 530:271-279.


Goldfinger, S., Wackernagel, M., Galli, A., Lazarus, E., Lin, D., 2014. Footprint facts and fallacies: a response to Giampietro and Saltelli (2014) footprints to nowhere. Ecol. Indic. 46, 622–632. 


Bastianoni, S., Niccolucci, V., Neri, E., Cranston, G., Galli, A. and Wackernagel, M. (2012), ‘Ecological Footprint as accounting tool for sustainable development’, in Jørgensen, S.E. (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Environmental Management.


David Lin, Alessandro Galli, Michael Borucke, Elias Lazarus, Nicole Grunewald, Jon Martindill, David Zimmerman, Serena Mancini, Katsunori Iha, and Mathis Wackernagel, 2015. Tracking Supply and Demand of Biocapacity through Ecological Footprint Accounting.  Chapter in:  Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies. Wiley. 20 November 2015


Lin, David, Mathis Wackernagel, Alessandro Galli, Ronna Kelly (2015), Ecological Footprint: Informative and evolving – A response to van den Bergh and Grazi (2014), Ecological Indicators,


Galli, Alessandro, David Lin, Mathis Wackernagel, Michel Gressot, Sebastian Winkler, 2014, Humanity’s growing Ecological Footprint: sustainable development implications, GSDR 2015 Science Briefs, United Nations, New York.


Wackernagel, Mathis, 2014, ‘Der Grundkonflikt: der “ökologische Fussabdruck”’ in Heike Leitschu, Gerd Michelsen, Udo Simonis, Jörg Sommer und Ernst U. von Weizsäcker, (eds) 2015. Re-Naturierung: Gesellschaft im Einklang mit der Natur – Jahrbuch Ökologie 2015. S. Hirzel Verlag Stuttgart. P 197 – 201;


Rees, William and Mathis Wackernagel, 2013. The Shoe Fits, but the Footprint is Larger than Earth. A response to the Breakthrough Institute’s PLoS paper. PLoS Biol 11(11): e1001701. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001701


Wackernagel, Mathis, 2014 Comment on “Ecological Footprint Policy? Land Use as an Environmental Indicator” Journal of Industrial Ecology, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Volume 18, Issue 1, pages 20–23, February 2014, DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12094;


Wackernagel, Mathis, Gemma Cranston, Juan Carlos Morales, Alessandro Galli, 2014. “Chapter 24: Ecological Footprint Accounts:  From Research Question to Application,” Giles Atkinson, Simon Dietz, Eric Neumayer and Matthew Agarwala (eds), 2014, Handbook of Sustainable Development: second revised edition. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK ISBN-13: 978-1782544692


Galli, Alessandro; Mathis Wackernagel, Katsunori Iha; Elias Lazarus, 2014. Ecological Footprint: Implications for Biodiversity, Journal for Biological Conservation, Elsevier, preprint available here


Wackernagel, Mathis, Alessandro Galli, Michael Borucke, Elias Lazarus, and Scott Mattoon, 2013. Chapter 11: Ecological Footprint Accounting, Philip Lawn (editor), Globalisation, Economic Transition, and the Environment: Forging a Path to Sustainable Development. Edward Elgar Publication, 384 pages.


Niccolucci, Valentina, Alessandro Galli, Anders Reed, E. Neri, Mathis Wackernagel, Simone Bastianoni, (2011), Towards a 3D National Ecological Footprint Geography, Ecological Modelling Ecological Modelling, Volume 222, Issue 16, 24 August 2011, Pages 2939-2944


Borucke, M. Moore, D. Cranston, G. Gracey, K. Iha, K. Larson, J. Lazarus, E. Morales, J. Wackernagel, M. and Gall A. 2013. Accounting for demand and supply of the Biosphere's regenerative capacity: The National Footprint Accounts' underlying methodology and framework. Ecological Indicators, 24, pp. 518–33. available here.


Wackernagel, Mathis. 2012. “Ecological Footprint Accounting” in Daniel Fogel, Sarah Fredericks, Ian Spellerberg, Lisa L. Butler Harrington, (editors) 2012.  Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 6 on Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability, Berkshire Publishing.


Alessandro Galli, Justin Kitzes, Valentina Niccolucci, Mathis Wackernagel, Yoshihiko Wada, Nadia Marchettini (2012) Assessing the global environmental consequences of economic growth through the Ecological Footprint: A focus on China and India, Ecological Indicators, Volume 17, June 2012, Pages 99-107


Wackernagel, Mathis; Galli, Alessandro. (2012) Ecological Footprint: Economic Performance and Resource Constraints, Global Dialogue (Online); Nicosia14.1 (Winter 2012): 13-27.


Dan Moran, Mathis Wackernagel, 2012. “Chapter 3: Measuring Sustainability” in Murray, Cawthorne, Dey, Andrew (eds), 2012, Enough for All Forever: A Handbook for Learning about Sustainability, Published by Common Ground Publishing LLC, Champaign, Illinois.


Mathis Wackernagel y Luis Salomón, 2012, “Capitulo 2: Nuestra huella ecológica y la biocapacidad de la Tierra” Frank Hajek y Pablo Martínez de Anguita (ed) ¿Gratis? Los servicios de la naturaleza y cómo sostenerlos en el Perú. sePeru.


Kitzes, J., D. Moran, A. Galli, Y. Wada, and M. Wackernagel, 2009. Interpretation and application of the Ecological Footprint: A reply to Fiala (2008). Ecol. Econ. 68: p.929–930.


Wackernagel, Mathis. 2009. “Methodological advancements in footprint analysis.” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 7, pages 1925-1927.


Daniel Moran, Mathis Wackernagel, Justin Kitzes, Benjamin Heumann, Doantam Phan, Steven Goldfinger. 2009. “Trading Spaces: Calculating embodied Ecological Footprints in international trade using a Product Land Use Matrix (PLUM).” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 7, pages 1938-1951.


V. Niccolucci, S. Bastianoni, E.B.P. Tiezzi, M. Wackernagel, N. Marchettini, 2009, How deep is the footprint? A 3D representation, Ecological Modelling, 220 (2009) 2819–2823.


Justin Kitzes, Alessandro Galli, Marco Bagliani, John Barrett, Gorm Dige, Sharon Ede, Karlheinz Erb, Stefan Giljum, Helmut Haberl, Chris Hails, Laurent Jolia-Ferreir, Sally Jungwirth, Manfred Lenzen, Kevin Lewis, Jonathan Loh, Nadia Marchettini, Hans Messinger, Krista Milne, Richard Moles, Chad Monfreda, Dan Moran, Katsura Nakano, Aili Pyhala, William Rees, Craig Simmons, Mathis Wackernagel, Yoshihiko Wada, Connor Walsh, Thomas Wiedmann. 2009. “A research agenda for improving national Ecological Footprint accounts.” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 7, pages 1991-2007.


Wackernagel, Mathis. 2008. Chapter 5. Measuring Ecological Footprints. OECD Sustainable Development Studies, Measuring Sustainable Production (based on Copenhagen Workshop on Sustainable Manufacturing 2007). OECD, Paris. , (Complete Edition - ISBN 9264044124) Industry, Services & Trade , pp.1-130


Kitzes, J., Galli, A, Bagliani, M., Barrett, J., Dige, G., Ede, S., Erb, K., Giljum, S., Haberl, H., Hails, C., Jungwirth, S., Lenzen, M., Lewis, K., Loh, J., Marchettini, N., Messinger, H., Milne, K., Moles, R., Monfreda, C., Moran, D., Nakano, K., Pyhälä, A., Rees, W., Simmons, C., Wackernagel, M., Wada, Y., Walsh, C. & Wiedmann, T., A Research Agenda for Improving National Ecological Footprint Accounts. Paper submitted to the International Ecological Footprint Conference - Stepping up the Pace: New Developments in Ecological Footprint Methodology, Policy & Practice, 8-10 May, Cardiff, 2007.


A. Galli, J. Kitzes, P. Wermer, M. Wackernagel, V. Niccolucci & E. Tiezzi, 2007. An Exploration of the Mathematics Behind the Ecological Footprint. International Journal of Ecodynamics.


Wackernagel, Mathis 2007. Can we afford to reduce our Ecological Footprint? in Jérôme Binde, Making Peace with the Earth: What Future for the Human Species and the Planet? UNESCO Publishing Berghan Books, 2007. pp 85-99.


Kitzes, J., A. Peller, S. Goldfinger, and M. Wackernagel.  2007.  Current Methods for Calculating National Ecological Footprint Accounts.  Science for Environment & Sustainable Society (Research Center for Sustainability and Environment, Shiga University), 4(1).


Wackernagel, Mathis, Dan Moran, Steven Goldfinger, 2006, “Ecological Footprint Accounting: Comparing Earth’s Biological Capacity with an Economy’s Resource Demand” (in Marco Keiner, ed: The Future of Sustainability. Springer Verlag, 2006).


Kitzes, Justin A, and Mathis Wackernagel, “Ecological Footprint” Encyclopedia of Ecology, Elsevier Publication (accepted 2006)


Daniel D. Moran, Mathis Wackernagel, Justin A. Kitzes, Steven H. Goldfinger, Aurélien Boutaud, 2008, “Measuring Sustainable Development – Nation by Nation,” Ecological Economics, vol. 64, issue 3, pages 470-474. (published electronically in 2007).


Justin Kitzes, Mathis Wackernagel, Jonathan Loh, Audrey Peller, Steven Goldfinger, Deborah Cheng, and Kallin Tea. “Shrink and Share: Humanity’s Present and Future Ecological Footprint”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (2006). Volume 363, Number 1491 / February 12, 2008. pp 467-475.


Mathis Wackernagel, Justin Kitzes, Dan Moran, Steven Goldfinger, Mary Thomas, 2005 “The Ecological Footprint of Cities and Regions: Comparing Resource Availability with Resource Demand” Special issue of “Environment and Urbanization” Vol 18 #1, April 2006 p 103-112, also published in Springer Book (Nolberto Munier, Editor).


Mathis Wackernagel, Dan Moran, Steven Goldfinger, Paul Wermer, 2005. “Advancing the Ecological Footprint’s Policy Relevance.” submitted to Ecological Economics.


Mathis Wackernagel, Dan Moran, Steven Goldfinger, 2005, “Ecological Footprint Accounting: Comparing Resource Availability with an Economy’s Resource Demand” (in Italian) Equilibri.1/2005 Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.


Thomas Wiedmann, Jan Minx, John Barrett, Mathis Wackernagel, 2006, Allocating Ecological Footprints to Final Consumption Categories with Input-Output Analysis.” Ecological Economics. 56(1):28-48.


Mathis Wackernagel, Dan Moran, Sahm White, Michael Murray, 2004, “Ecological Footprint Accounts for Advancing Sustainability: Measuring Human Demand on Nature” In contribution to Phil Lawn (editor) 2005. Sustainable Development Indicators and Public Policy: Assessing the Policy-Guiding Value of Sustainable Development Indicators. Edward Elgar.


Wackernagel, M. Sahm White, Dan Moran, 2004. Using Ecological Footprint Accounts: From Analysis to Applications, Int. J. Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, Nos. 3/4, 2004, 293-315.


Wackernagel, M., Chris Martiniak, Fred Wellington, Chad Monfreda, Steve Goldfinger, 2005, “Does a Nation’s Ecological Performance Affect its Economic Stability? The potential for enhancing sovereign credit risk assessments with ecological resource accounts” Stefan Schaltegger, & Wagner, M. (editors): Managing the Business Case for Sustainability: The Integration of Social Environmental and Economic Performance. 2006, Greenleaf Publishing.


Haberl, H., Wackernagel, M., and Wrbka, T. 2004. “Editorial: Land use and sustainability indicators. An introduction” Land Use Policy 21 (2004) 193–198.


Haberl, H., Wackernagel, M., Krausmann, F., Erb, K.-H., Monfreda, C., 2004. “Ecological Footprints and Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production: A Comparison.” Land Use Policy, 21 (2004) 279–288.


Krausmann, F., Haberl, H., Erb, K.-H., Wackernagel, M, 2004. “Resource flows and land use in Austria 1950-2000: Using the MEFA framework to monitor society-nature interaction for sustainability.” Land Use Policy, 21 (2004) 215–230.


Monfreda, C., Wackernagel, M., Deumling, D., 2004. “Establishing national natural capital accounts based on detailed ecological footprint and biological capacity accounts.” Land Use Policy, 21 (2004) 231–246.


Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C, Erb, K.-H., Haberl, H., Schulz, N.B. 2004. “Ecological Footprint time series of Austria, the Philippines, and South Korea for 1961-1999: Comparing the conventional approach to an actual area demand approach.” Land Use Policy, 21 (2004) 261–269.


Wackernagel, M., Monfreda, C., Schulz, N.B., Erb, K.-H., Haberl, H., Krausmann, F. 2004. “Calculating national and global ecological footprint time series: Resolving conceptual challenges.” Land Use Policy, 21 (2004) 271–278.


Wackernagel, M. and Chad Monfreda, 2004, Ecological Footprints and Energy, in Cutler J. Cleveland, ed. 2004, Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier,  ISBN 0-12-176480-X.


Wackernagel, M., Karl Steyaert, Kim Rodgers, “Sustainable Development” entry for Encyclopedia of Population, edited by Paul Demeny and Geoffrey McNicolls (2003), Macmillan Reference USA, New York, NY and Farmington Hills, MI.


Wackernagel, M. 2002 Ecological Footprint and Ecological Capacity. How Much Nature We Use and How Much We Have: In the World, in the US, and in the Army. Contribution to a Sustainability Book edited by David Eady, U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute, Atlanta.


Wackernagel, M. and Diana Deumling, (2003) “Future-Friendliness in Action: A Toolkit to Help Prepare the Quantum Leap towards Sustainability” in D.J. Rapport, W.L. Lasley, D.E. Rolston, N.O. Nielsen, C.O. Qualset, and A.B. Damania (eds.) Managing for Healthy Ecosystems, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida USA.


Wackernagel, M. Niels B. Schulz, Diana Deumling, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Martin Jenkins, Valerie Kapos, Chad Monfreda, Jonathan Loh, Norman Myers, Richard Norgaard, & Jorgen Randers, “Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 14, 9266-9271, July 9, 2002 with link to the downloadable calculation sheets


Karl-Henrik Robèrt; Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel, George Basile; J. Leo Jansen; Ruediger Kuehr; Peter Price Thomas; Motoyuki Suzuki; Paul Hawken; Bio Schmidt-Bleek, Mathis Wackernagel, “Strategic sustainable development - selection, design and synergies of applied tools” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 10 (3) (2002) pp. 197-214.


Wackernagel, M., and Stefan Giljum. 2001, “Der Import von ökologischer Kapazität: Globaler Handel und die Akkumulation von ökologischen Schulden” (Import of Ecological Capacity: Global Trade and the Accumulation of Ecological Debts). Natur und Kultur Vol. 2 No. 1, p33-54.


Wackernagel, M. and Judith Silverstein, 2000. “Big Things First: Focusing on the Scale Imperative with the Ecological Footprint”, contribution to Robert Costanza’s “Forum: The Dynamics of the Ecological Footprint Concept” in Ecological Economics. Vol. 32, No 3, March 2000. pp 391-394. Special issue: Costanza, R., Ayres, R., Deutsch, L., Jansson, A., Troell, M., Rönnbäck, P., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Herendeen, R., Moffat, I., Opschoor, H., Rapport, D., Rees, W., Simmons, C., Lewis, K., Barrett. J., Templet, P., Van Kooten, C., Bulte, E., Wackernagel, M. and Silverstein, J. 2000. Commentary Forum: The Ecological Footprint. Ecological Economics. Vol. 32 No 3 (2000), p341-394.


Wackernagel, M., “An Evaluation of the Ecological Footprints.” Letter to the Editor in Response to ‘Spatial Sustainability, Trade and Indicators: An Evaluation of the Ecological Footprint,’ by Jeroen van den Bergh and Harmen Verbruggen, published in Ecological Economics, Vol. 29 No 1, p. 61–72, Ecological Economics. Vol. 31 No 3.


Wackernagel, M., “Carrying Capacity, Overshoot and the Need to Curb Human Consumption”, Chapter for Norman Myers (ed.) A European Perspective on Sustainable Consumption, with Special Reference to Sustainable Consumption in Europe. 2000. Occasional Publication Series "Science in Society", Royal Society, London. Released at the IAP May 2000 Conference in Tokyo, “The Transition to Sustainability.”


Wackernagel, M., “Importing Carrying Capacity: How Global Trade Enables Nations and the World to Accumulate an Ecological Debt,” Contribution to Prof. Kenneth Watt’s Encyclopedia on Human Ecology, (originally with the Academic Press), 1999.


Lewan, Lillemor and Wackernagel, M., 1999. The Ecological Footprint and Biocapacity of Sweden, a South Swedish Region and a Catchment Area. In: R. Kleijn, S. Bringezu, M. Fischer-Kowalski and V. Palm (Editors), Ecologizing Societal Metabolism, Designing Scenarios for Sustainable Materials Management. Proceedings of a ConAccount workshop, CML report 148, Leiden University, Leiden, pp. 62-68.


Brown, Mark, Charles A.S. Hall and M. Wackernagel, “Comparative Estimates of Sustainability: Economic, Resource Base, Ecological Footprints and EMergy,” Chapter 25. in C.A.S. Hall, Patrick Van Laake, Carlos Leon Perez and Gregoire Leclerc (editors), Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies. A Biophysical Analysis of Sustainability. Systems Science Series, Academic Press, San Diego, 2000. pp 695-714.


Wackernagel, M., “Book Review: How Many People Can the Earth Support? by Joel E. Cohen”, Ecological Economics (June 1999 Vol.29 No.3, p 485-488).


Borgström Hansson, Carina and M. Wackernagel, “Mapping place and accounting space: How to re-embed the human economy” Ecological Economics, May 1999 Vol.29 No.2, p 203-213.


Wackernagel, M. and David Yount, 2000, “Footprints for Sustainability: Next Steps”, Environment, Development and Sustainability. Vol. 1 No. 2: 21–42. 2000.


Wackernagel, M., Lillemor Lewan and Carina Borgström Hansson, 1999. “Evaluating the Use of Natural Capital with the Ecological Footprint: Applications in Sweden and Subregions”, Ambio. Vol 28 No. 7, pp604-612.


Sturm, Andreas, M. Wackernagel and Kaspar Müller, 1999. “Wer werden die Gewinner und die Verlierer im globalen Wettbewerb sein? Die ökologische Grundlage der nationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit” GAIA Vol 8 No 2, p87-92.


Holmberg, John, Ulrika Lundqvist, Karl-Henrik Robèrt and M. Wackernagel, “The Ecological Footprint from a Systems Perspective of Sustainability”, The International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Vol. 6 p17-33 1999.


Wackernagel, M., “Can Trade Promote an Ecologically Secure World? The Global Economy from an Ecological Footprint Perspective.” Buffalo Environmental Law Journal. Volume 5, No. 2, May 1998. p180.


Wackernagel, M. and David Yount, “The Ecological Footprint: An Indicator of Progress Toward Regional Sustainability”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 51 (1/2): 511-529, June 1998.


Wackernagel, M., “Footprints: Recent Steps and Possible Traps”, Local Environment Vol.3 No.2 (July 1998).


Wackernagel, M., “The Ecological Footprint of Santiago de Chile”, Local Environment Vol.3 No.1 (Feb 1998), p7-25.


Wackernagel, M., Larry Onisto, Patricia Bello, Alejandro Callejas Linares, Ina Susana López Falfán, Jesus Méndez García, Ana Isabel Suárez Guerrero and Ma. Guadalupe Suárez Guerrero, “National Natural Capital Accounting with the Ecological Footprint Concept”, Ecological Economics. June 1999 Vol.29 No.3, p 375-390.


Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, 1999, “Monetary Analysis:  Turning a Blind Eye on Sustainability”. In M. Wackernagel and Alex Long (editor), 1999, “Ecological Economics Forum: Why Sustainability Analyses Must Include Biophysical Assessments”. Ecological Economics Vol. 29 No. 1 p 47-52, 1999.


Wackernagel, M. and Alex Long (editor), 1999, “Ecological Economics Forum: Why Sustainability Analyses Must Include Biophysical Assessments”. Ecological Economics Vol. 29 No. 1 Forum: p13-60 , Introduction p 13-15, 1999.


Wackernagel, M., “La Huella Ecológica de las Ciudades ¿Cómo Asegurar el Bienestar Humano dentro de los Límites Ecológicos? (The Ecological Footprint: How to Secure Human Well-being within the Means of Nature). Ecología Política, Vol.12-1996.


Wackernagel, M., “La Huella Ecológica de Las Ciudades. ¿Cómo Asegurar el Bienestar Humano dentro de los Límites Ecológicos? / The Ecological Footprint of Cities: How to Assure Human Well-Being within the Ecological Limits.” Production, Use and Consumption of the City. Habitat Colombia, Bogota. March 1996.


Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, “Urban Ecological Footprints: Why Cities Cannot be Sustainable - and Why They Are a Key to Sustainability”, Environ Impact Assess Rev. Vol.16, p223-248, September 1996.


Wackernagel, M., “Framing the Sustainability Crisis: Getting from Concern to Action.” Discussion Paper for the Sustainable Development Research Institute (SDRI) at The University of British Columbia. Published in SDRI Discussion Paper Series 97-1. 1997.


Wackernagel, M. with Guadalupe Suárez, “¿Cuánto Mide Tu Huella Ecológica? El Papel de la Agricultura en el Siglo XXI”. (How large is your Ecological Footprint: The role of agriculture in the 21st century). Commemorative publication of the Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas, Universidad Veracruzana.


Rees, William E., and M. Wackernagel, “Our Ecological Footprint: Where on Earth is the Lower Fraser Basin”, in Healy, M.C. (editor). Sustainability Issues and Choices in the Lower Fraser Basin: Resolving the Dissonance, UBC Press. 1997.


Wackernagel, M. and William E. Rees, “Perceptual and Structural Barriers to Investing in Natural Capital.” Ecological Economics. Vol.20 No.1, 1997.

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